Gynaecology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the health and well-being of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina.

Common Gynaecological Conditions

  • Overview: Irregularities in the menstrual cycle, including heavy bleeding (menorrhagia), painful periods (dysmenorrhea), or absence of periods (amenorrhea).
  • Causes: Hormonal imbalances, fibroids, endometriosis, PCOS, malignancy, stress, and lifestyle factors.
  • Treatment: Hormonal therapies (oral contraceptive pills/injections, Implanon, Mirena), pain management, lifestyle changes, surgery for fibroids, polyps or endometriosis.
  • Overview: A complex hormonal disorder causing irregular periods, excess androgen and/or polycystic ovaries.
  • Causes: The exact cause is not fully understood. It may be associated with family history, genetics and hormonal imbalances.
  • Treatment: Lifestyle changes, medication for insulin resistance and hormonal regulation, ovulation induction with oral tablets or injections, ovarian drilling, or IVF treatments if necessary.
  • Overview: Growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus, causing pain and fertility issues.
  • Causes: The exact cause is unknown. Potential causes are genetics (through family), retrograde menstruation, hormone issues, immune system disorders or blood or lymph system transport.
  • Treatment: Pain relief, hormonal therapy, laparoscopic surgery to remove endometriotic lesions.
  • Overview: Recurrent miscarriage refers to two-or-more miscarriages in a row before the foetus reaches viability (24 weeks gestation).
  • Causes: genetics, anatomical causes, thrombophilia, endocrinological association, autoimmune issues, environment or lifestyles.
  • Treatment: weight loss, cessation of smoking, reduction of alcohol intake, use of prednisolone for natural killer cells (controversial), antibiotics for infections, medications for overt thyroid disorders, aspirin +/- clexane for acquired thrombophilia, surgery to correct structural abnormalities.
  • Overview: Benign growths in the uterus, often during childbearing years.
  • Causes: Hormonal factors, genetics.
  • Treatment: Medications to regulate hormones, minimally invasive procedures to remove the fibroids, hysterectomy in severe cases.
  • Overview: Infection of the female reproductive organs, often from sexually transmitted bacteria.
  • Causes: STIs like chlamydia or gonorrhoea, bacterial overgrowth.
  • Treatment: Antibiotics, treatment for sexual partner, hospitalisation and/or surgery in severe cases.
  • Overview: Fluid-filled sacs in or on an ovary.
  • Causes: Age, endometriosis, pregnancy or past history with ovarian cyst.
  • Treatment: Watchful waiting, hormonal contraceptives, laparoscopy to remove the cyst.
  • Overview: Infections causing irritation, discharge, and odour, including yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis.
  • Causes: Imbalance of vaginal bacteria, yeast overgrowth.
  • Treatment: Antifungal medications for yeast infections, antibiotics for bacterial vaginosis.
  • Overview: Precancerous changes in the cervix, often detected by routine cervical screening.
  • Causes: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • Treatment: Regular monitoring, colposcopy and/or biopsy, surgical procedures to remove abnormal cells.
  • Overview: Transition to menopause with symptoms like hot flashes, mood changes, and vaginal dryness.
  • Causes: Natural decline in reproductive hormones.
  • Treatment: Non-hormonal medications, hormone replacement therapy, lifestyle changes and behavioural therapy

Advances in medical research continue to enhance treatment options and outcomes in gynaecological care.

Preventative care, including regular check-ups and screenings, play a crucial role in women’s health. It is important to note that the treatment for each condition can vary based on its severity, individual patient factors, and medical recommendations. Treatments can vary from lifestyle modifications and medication to surgical interventions.

Women experiencing gynaecological issues should seek care from a qualified gynaecologist for proper evaluation and treatment. Do not delay your essential screening such as pap smears, etc.

Dr Wang-Gilchrist is a Sydney Fertility Specialist, and Obstetrician and Gynaecologist who has significant experience diagnosing, treating, and managing a wide range of conditions related to women’s reproductive health.

Dr Wang-Gilchrist spent four years working as a laboratory and clinical researcher investigating novel infertility treatments and has published several peer-reviewed international papers in reproductive medicine. She holds three separate Master Degrees in the areas of embryology, infertility and reproductive care, and she is a Fellow of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (FRANZCOG).